Margaret of Parma

Margaret of Parma
   This natural daughter of Holy Roman emperor Charles V was educated by her aunt Mary of Hungary and by Margaret of Austria, her great-aunt. Her half brother Philip II, king of Spain, installed her as governor in 1559 when he left the Low Countries. During her government, dissatis faction with the policy of the king and of his confidant, Cardinal Granvelle, resulted in a revolt and civil war. In 1567, Margaret left the Netherlands for Italy, only to return to office from 1580 until 1583 when the northern provinces renounced Philip as their sover eign (in 1581) and founded the Dutch Republic.

Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands. . 2012.

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